The APA in text reference is in the format (author, date). When directly quoting from a text you must include a page number in the citation as given in the examples below. Including page numbers in all other circumstances is not required however, it is best practice to do so when referring to part of a work (e.g. a paragraph or chapter in a book). When referring to an entire work that covers a single topic (e.g. a journal article) it is not required.
Referencing an idea
- The leading medical cause of Aboriginal mortality is due to circulatory system disease. Other important causes of death include diseases of the respiratory system and injury or poisoning (Anderson, 1999; Saggers & Gray, 1999; Thomson, 1995).
- Anderson (1999), Thomson (1995), and Saggers and Gray (1999) all state that the leading cause of Aboriginal mortality is due to circulatory system disease, and that other important causes of death include diseases of the respiratory system and injury or poisoning.
Referencing a quotation
- Indeed, one researcher commented that “technological innovations have saved or extended the lives of many patients” (Lumby, 2001, p. 44).
Citing a source within a source
Where your source quotes or refers to another source, for example Unsworth refers to previous work by Halliday on linguistics, the citation might read thus:
- (Halliday, 1987, cited in Unsworth, 2004, p. 15)
Only Unsworth will appear in the Reference list at the end of your assignment
Sagarin, B. J., & Lawler-Sagarin, K. A. (2005). Critically evaluating competing theories: An exercise based on the Kitty Genovese murder. Teaching of Psychology, 32(3), 167–169. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328023top3203_8
What is a DOI?
Some library databases, such as PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, list a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for individual articles. A DOI is a unique identifying number for an article. In the database record for an article, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "https://doi.org/":
This link will allow a reader to link to doi.org for more information about the article.
However, the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2012, p. 5) notes that it is still acceptable to use the older style of DOI format in a citation, for example:
Amidzic, O., Riehle, H. J., & Elbert, T. (2006). Toward a psychophysiology of expertise: Focal magnetic gamma bursts as a signature of memory chunks and the aptitude of chess players. Journal of Psychophysiology, 20(4), 253-258. doi:10.1027/0269-8803.20.4.253