Elements Of Essays Patterns Purpose And Perspectives Lexington

Isn’t it tricky that you may feel disoriented or clueless when what you are just facing is a neat, blank paper?

Filling it up with words is not as easy as jumping in a pool and everything that follows is fun and predictable. Writing has become a part of our daily lives, in our relationships, career, community works, and artistic expression. In fact, history is paralyzed without writing. We would never understand ourselves and our surroundings without the recordings of our past.

On the other hand, writing in the fields of science and business means experimenting with the future and laying out a roadmap of events and possibilities. Humans are innately inclined to discovering new things and seeking progress. For those who are in advertising, journalism, or teaching, writing means livelihood. For novelists and poets, writing is who they are. For the rest, writing is a requirement. Everyone can write. Everyone has to write at one point in their lives.

Do not be overwhelmed.

Jean Jacques Rousseau, an 18th-century philosopher and writer, once said, “However great a person’s natural talent may be, the art of writing cannot be learned all at once.” This Guide will serve as your introduction to a series of articles on writing, starting with its most basic form: essay writing.

What is an Essay?

  • Definition
  • Difference of Essay from Different Types of Paper

Steps of Writing an Essay

  • Determine Your Purpose
  • Know Your Audience
  • Brainstorming Techniques

Basic Structure of an EssayThe Role of Research in WritingWriter’s Block and Where to Get Inspiration Stephen King, in his book On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft, wrote “The scariest moment is always just before you start. After that, things can only get better.” So now, let us begin making things better.

What is An Essay? An essay is a piece of writing that focuses on one subject and a particular purpose. In learning institutions, it is assigned to students to develop and test their writing skills, comprehension, and creativity.

An essay is different from a Research Paper, which requires heavy research, strict methodology, and more formal structure, tone, and style. An Essay welcomes a more creative approach, is sometimes composed of personal insights by the author, and requires only outlining and simple paragraph structure.

It is different from a Report, which according to Southampton Solent University, acts as the presentation and analysis of findings from practical research. It begins with an aim (to investigate, to explore) and probably ahypothesis (a proposition that the research will test). Depending on the guidelines or purpose, a report may make recommendations.” Meanwhile, an essay may answer a question and use “results of practical research but only in so far as it may help support the writer’s conclusions.”

An essay is different from a Journal. In one of its writing materials, the RMIT University noted that a journal is mostly about your ideas and insights, reflections on the content of the subject and on your own learning process, and for a school setting, analysis on subjects and issues covered by classwork and/or readings.

Steps on Writing an Essay Determine Your Purpose.

Usually, the purpose springs from the writing assignment or your instructor’s requirements. It should describe the ideal design and content of your essay. According to the University of Canberra, an essay question is typically composed of two elements:

1. Information about the content that you are supposed to cover. For example: Vygotsky’s theories on child development, or systems of governance in Europe

2. One or more verbs, or direction words, that tell you what to do with that content. For example: analyze it, explain it, discuss it, or describe it

The NSW Department of Education and Communities emphasizes the need to study the keywords of the assignment question carefully. Their pointers include: identifying the topic words that ask for the particular subject of an essay, eg the character of Juliet in Shakespeare’s piece; being aware of the limiting words that define the scope of what must be discussed, eg “Chapters 1-3”; and noting the Task Words (or direction words).

Meanwhile, there are essays with no assigned topics or purpose. In a post, the Missouri University of Science and Technology presents the six general types of purposes in writing according to the different parts of Russian linguist Roman Jakobson’s model of the communication situation: writer, reader, context, message, contact, and code:

  1. Writer: Expressive purposes. One may write simply to express one’s feelings, attitudes, ideas, and so on. This type of writing doesn’t take the reader into consideration; instead, it focuses on the writer’s feelings, experience, and needs. Expressive writing may take the form of poetry, journals, letters, and, especially, free writing. Often, a person will do expressive writing and then be disappointed when readers don’t respond to it.
  2. Reader: Conative purposes. Conative writing seeks to affect the reader. Persuasive writing is conative; so is writing intended to entertain the reader. Writing intended to arouse the reader’s feelings is conative. Conative writing may take about any form, so long as its intention to persuade the reader or affect the reader emotionally.
  3. Context: Informative purposes. Informative writing refers to something external to the writing itself, with the purpose of informing the reader. For instance, this page is informative, as are the other components of this Map. In our times, informative writing is usually prose, although in earlier periods poetry was used for informative purposes.
  4. Message: Poetic purposes. Poetic (or literary or stylistic) purposes focus on the message itself—on its language, on the way the elements of language are used, on structure and pattern both on the level of phrase and of the overall composition. Poetic writing can be in prose as well as in verse. Fiction has poetic purposes. Anytime one writes with an emphasis on the way the language is used, one has a poetic purpose.
  5. Contact: Phatic purposes. Phatic language (and nonverbal communication) establishes and maintains contacts between speakers or between writer and reader. In speaking, for instance, we may greet someone by saying, “Howya doin?” or Hozit goin?” These questions are not requests for information. They are intended to establish and maintain friendly contact. Phatic purposes are not significant in most writing. The use of greetings and closings in letters is one example of phatic purpose in writing.
  6. Code: Metalinguistic purposes. Comments on a piece of writing are metalinguistic. If a student attaches a note to an essay to explain why the essay is late, the note is metalinguistic in relation to the essay. An author’s preface to a book is another example of metalinguistic purpose in writing.

Know Your Audience. Dr. Steven Hale, in his article for the Georgia Perimeter College, defined audience as “anyone who reads, sees, or hears a message (a story or essay, a speech, a painting, and so on).” He explained that there are two types of audience:

  1. The Real Audience – people who read or take the message, such as the teacher, a friend, or a tutor in the writing lab for an essay
  2. The Intended Audience – the target group that the message sender has in mind, such as the young, middle-aged, or old; male or female; politicians or voters; African-Americans or European-Americans or South Americans.

Hale points out that knowing your audience means deciding on what your writing strategy would be. If your audience belongs to a formal group (for example, a group of professors), your tone of writing should not be casual. If the audience is composed of creative individuals, you can apply a freestyle or conversational approach.

Apply an Invention or Inquiry Strategy. Rise B. Axelrod and Charles R. Cooper, authors of the St. Martin’s The Guide to Writing, explained that invention and inquiry strategies (also known as heuristics) are helpful because they are tools to building a framework for an essay and can be used in almost all writing situations. These strategies can help one explore, study, and scrutinize a topic.

The first category of these strategies is called Mapping. Mapping refers to visual techniques, particularly maps. These maps are graphic displays with words and phrases circled and connected by lines to show relationships, or they might be formal sentence outlines, according to Axelrod and Cooper. Among the mapping strategies are Clustering, Listing, and Outlining.

Clustering explores the possible connections of facts and ideas and requires a tentative division of the topic into subparts or main ideas. Here are the steps:

  1. In a word or phrase, write your topic in the center of a piece of paper. Circle it.
  2. Also in words or phrases, write down the main parts or central ideas of your topic. Circle these, and connect them with lines to the topic in the center.
  3. Next, think of facts, details, examples, or ideas related in any way to these main parts. Cluster these around the main parts.

Here is an example (the subject is Victoria:

Listing works by creating a title for the list that conveys your main idea or topic. You are encouraged to write as fast as you can , include anything that appears useful. Axelrod and Cooper said that “after you have finished, or even as you write, reflect on the list and organize it in the following way:

  • Put an asterisk next to the most promising items
  • Number key items in order of importance
  • Put items in related groups
  • Cross out items that do not seem promising.
  • Add new items.”

Outlining is determining where your essay’s strengths and weaknesses lie. The two types of outlining are: 1) Informal Scratch Outlining – A scratch outline is informal in style because it is similar to listing the essay’s main points. Here is a sample outline for an argumentative essay:

  • Presentation of the Issue
  • Concession of some aspect of an opposing position
  • Thesis statement
  • First reason with support
  • Second reason with support (etc)
  • Conclusion

2) Topic/Sentence Outlining – This observes a conventional format of numbered and lettered headings and subheadings. Although both are formal, they have differences:

Topic Outline

I. Main topic

A. Subtopic of I

B. Another Subtopic of I

1. Subtopic of 1.B

2. (and so on)

C. Another Subtopic of I

1. Subtopic of I.C

Sentence Outline

I. Highly organized competitive sports such as Peewee Football and Little League Baseball can be physically and psychologically harmful to children, as well as counterproductive for developing future players.

A. Physically harmful because sports entice children into physical actions that are bad for growing bodies.

1. Koppett claims throwing a curve ball may put abnormal strain on developing arm and shoulder muscles.

2. (and so on)

The second category of Invention and Inquiry strategies is simply called Writing. This style is about making complete statements that may help you “explore ideas and define relationships, bring ideas together or show how they differ, and identify causes and effects.” Among the Writing techniques are Cubing, Dialoguing, Dramatizing, Keeping a Journal, Looping, Questioning and Quick Drafting.

Cubing, according to the North Central University Writing Center, is about approaching “each subject or topic as a six-sided cube, with each of the six perspectives offering a different point of view.” Here is a version of the Six Sides of Cubing:

  1. Describe it: How can the topic or issue be described?
  2. Compare it: What is the topic or issue similar to or different from?
  3. Associate it: What does it make one think of? What can be related it to? How can the topic or issue be connected or related to other topics or issues?
  4. Analyze it: How can the topic or issue be separated or broken down into smaller parts?
  5. Apply it: How does the topic or issue help one to understand or define other topics or issues?
  6. Argue for or against it: How could one be for this or against this? This works or doesn’t work because?

Dialoguing refers to the conversation between two or more people, according to authors Axelrod and Cooper. The steps in performing this exercise are: write a conversation between two people (Speaker A and Speaker B); if one stops, the other may ask another speaker to ask the other a question; and present brief responses to keep the conversation moving fast. This technique is actually useful when one is coming up with personal experience and persuasive essays.

Dramatizing, a method developed by the philosopher Kenneth Burke, usually revolves on thinking about human behavior in dramatic terms. In their book, Axelrod and Cooper illustrate the five-pointed star that helps in applying the dramatism approach:

Action. An action is anything that happens, has happened, will happen or could happen. The examples are physical (running a marathon), mental (a book you have read), and emotional (falling in love).

Actor. The actor is involved in the action–either responsible for it or simply affected by it. It may also come in the form of force, something that causes an action.

Setting. The setting is the situation or background of the action. This may be the place and time of an event as well as the historical background of an event or the childhood of a person.

Motive. This refers to the purpose or reason for an action–the actor’s intention.

Method. This demonstrates how an action takes place, including the techniques an actor uses.

Keeping a Journal. Among the famous writers who successfully kept substantive journals were Sylvia Plath, Franz Kafka, Joan Didion, and CS Lewis. Here are things, according to Axelrod and Cooper, that you can do with a journal:

  • Keep a list of new words and concepts you learn in your courses.
  • Make reflections, reactions or evaluations about the things you read.
  • Recall the main ideas you have learned from assigned readings and about the relationship of these new ideas to other ideas in the course.
  • Record observations and overheard conversations.
  • Write for ten or fifteen minutes every day about whatever is on your mind.
  • Write sketches of people who catch your attention.
  • Talk about your goals and priorities or list specific things to accomplish and what you plan to do.
  • Keep a log over several days or weeks about a particular event unfolding in the news.

Looping. The authors explain that this technique is about writing quickly to explore some aspect of a topic and then looping back to your original starting point or to a new starting point to explore another aspect. The process involves the following steps:

  • Write down your area of interest.
  • Write nonstop for 10 minutes.
  • Pause to reread what you have written.
  • Beginning with this sentence, write nonstop for another ten minutes.
  • Summarize in one sentence again to complete the second loop.
  • Keep looping until one of your summary sentences produces a focus or thesis.

Questioning. The advantage of this approach is that it is systematic as it explores the subject. Among the sample questions that can expand as one goes through the writing process:

  1. What is Your Subject?
  2. What Parts or Features Does Your Subject Have and How Are They Related?
  3. How is Your Subject Similar to and Different from Other Subjects?
  4. How Much Can Your Subject Change and Still Remain in the Same?
  5. Where Do Your Subject Fit in the World?

Quick Drafting. According to Axelrod and Cooper, quick drafting has no special rules and is based on what the author already knows about the subject. This will also help him determine the things he still needs to find out about it.

 

I. Bibliographic Information

Provide the essential information about each book using the writing style asked for by your professor [e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.]. Depending on how your professor wants you to organize your review, the bibliographic information represents the heading of your review. In general, they would be arranged alphabetically by title and look like this:

Racing the Storm: Racial Implications and Lessons Learned from Hurricane Katrina. Hillary Potter, ed. (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007. 320 pp)
The Sociology of Katrina: Perspectives on a Modern Catastrophe. David L. Brunsma, David Overfelt, and J. Steven Picou, eds. (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007. 288 pp.)
Through the Eye of Katrina: Social Justice in the United States. Kristin A. Bates and Richelle S. Swan, eds. (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2007. 440 pp.)

Reviewed by [your name]


II. Thesis Statement

The thesis statement of an essay that compares and contrasts multiple works should contain an idea or claim that unites the discussion of each texts under review. It should include the argument that will be advanced in support of the claims that are being made. To begin, ask yourself: "What is the overarching subject or issue that ties together all of the books?" Why is it important?" In most scholarly works, the author(s) will state the purpose of their book in the preface or in an introductory chapter. Look for common themes as well as points of divergence among the books.

If you cannot find an adequate statement in the author's own words or if you find that the thesis statement is not well-developed, then you will have to compose your own introductory thesis statement that does cover all the material. The comparative thesis statement will vary in length depending on the number and complexity of books under review. Regardless of length, it must be succinct, accurate, unbiased, and clear.

If you find it difficult to discern the overall aims and objectives of each book [and, be sure to point this out in your review if you believe it to be a deficiency], you may arrive at an understanding of the purpose by asking yourself a the following questions:

  • Scan the table of contents because it can help you understand how the book is organized and will aid in determining the author's main ideas and how they are developed [e.g., chronologically, topically, etc.].
  • Why did the authors write on this subject rather than on some other subject?
  • From what point of view is each work written?
  • Were the authors trying to give information, to explain something technical, or to convince the reader of a belief’s validity by dramatizing it in action?
  • What is the general field or genre, and how does each book fit into it? If necessary, review related literature from other books and journal articles to familiarize yourself with the field.
  • Who is the intended audience for each book? Is it the same or are the books intended for difference sets of readers?
  • What is each author's style? Is it formal or informal? You can evaluate the quality of the writing style by noting some of the following standards: coherence, clarity, originality, forcefulness, accurate use of technical words, conciseness, fullness of development, and fluidity.
  • How did the books affect you? Were any prior assumptions you had on the subject that were changed, abandoned, or reinforced after reading the books? How are the books related to your own personal beliefs or assumptions? What personal experiences have you had that relate to the subject?
  • How well has each book achieved the goal(s) set forth in the preface, introduction, and/or foreword?
  • Would you recommend this book to others? Why or why not?

A useful strategy to help organize your thoughts is to create a table with a column for each book and rows for each of the questions. Enter your answer to each book in the chart. When completed, you'll have an easy guide to how each author has addressed the questions.

NOTE:  Your thesis statement underpins the purpose of your review and helps the reader understand how the books are related. However, while a book review essay should evaluate books about the same topic [e.g., Katrina recovery], there may not be an overarching issue that ties the books together. If this is the case, then the thesis could, for example, center around the diversity of issues scholars have chosen to examine or the fractured nature of scholarship on the topic.

ANOTHER NOTEYour thesis statement should include the rationale for why the key points you highlight or compare and contrast among the books being reviewed were deliberate and meaningful and not random. Explain their significance.


III. Methods of Organization

Organization is critical to writing an essay that compares and contrasts multiple works because you will most likely be discussing a variety of evidence and you must be certain that the logic and narrative flow of your paper can be understood by the reader. Here are some general guidelines to consider:

  1. If your professor asks you to choose the books to review, identify works that are closely related in some way so they can be easily compared or contrasted.
  2. Compare according to a single organizing idea [e.g., analysis of how each author assessed the effectiveness of post-Katrina recovery].
  3. Choose a method of development [see below] that works well with your organizing idea.
  4. Use specific and relevant examples to support your analysis.
  5. Use transitional words or phrases to help the reader understand the similarities and differences in your subject.
  6. Conclude your paper by restating your thesis, summarizing the main points, and giving the reader the final "so what" of the major similarities and/or differences that you discussed. Why are they important?

There are two general methods of organizing your book review essay. If you believe one work extends another, you'll probably use the block method; if you find that two or more works are essentially engaged in a debate or examine a topic from different perspectives, the point-by-point method will help draw attention to the conflict. However, the point-by-point method can come off as a rhetorical ping-pong match. You can avoid this effect by grouping more than one point together, thereby cutting down on the number of times you alternate from one work to another.

No matter which method you choose, you do not need to give equal time to similarities and differences. In fact, your paper will be more interesting if you state your main argument(s) as quickly as possible. For example, a book review essay evaluating three research studies that examine different interpretations of conflict resolution among nations in the Middle East might have as few as two or three sentences in the introduction regarding similarities and only a paragraph or two to set up the contrast between the author’s positions. The rest of the essay, whether organized by block method or point-by-point, will be your analysis of the key differences among the books.

The Block Method
Present all the information about A, and then present parallel information about B. This pattern tends to work better for shorter book review essays, and those with few sub-topics. The method looks like this:

I. Introduction
    A. Briefly introduce the significance of the overall subject matter
    B. Thesis Statement
        --First supporting point
        --Second supporting point
        --Third supporting point

II. First book
    A. Summary of book
        --Relationship of work to first point
        --Relationship of work to second point
        --Relationship of work to third point

III. Second book
    A. Summary of book
        --Relationship of work to first point
        --Relationship of work to second point
        --Relationship of work to third point

IV. Third book
    A. Summary of book
        --Relationship of work to first point
        --Relationship of work to second point
        --Relationship of work to third point

V. Conclusion
    A. Restate thesis
    B. Briefly summarize how you proved your argument

The Point-by-Point Method
Present one point about A, and then go to the parallel point about B. Move to the next point, and do the same thing. This pattern tends to work better for long book review essays and those with many sub-topics. The method looks like this:

I. Introduction
    A. Briefly introduce significance of overall subject matter
    B. Thesis statement

II. Brief explanation of first book

III. Brief explanation of second book

IV. First comparative point
    A. Relation of point to first book
    B. Relation of point to second book

V. Second comparative point
    A. Relation of point to first book
    B. Relation of point to second book

VI. Third comparative point
    A. Relation of point to first book
    B. Relation of point to second book

VII. Conclusion
    A. Restate thesis
    B. Briefly summarize how your proved your argument


IV.  Critically Evaluate the Contents

Regardless of whether you choose the block method or the point-by-point method, critical comments should form the bulk of your book review essay. State whether or not you feel the author's treatment of the subject matter is appropriate for the intended audience. Ask yourself:

  • Has the purpose of the books been achieved?
  • What contribution do the books make to the field of study or discipline?
  • Is the treatment of the subject matter objective?
  • Are there facts and evidence that have been omitted, either in one of the books or collectively?
  • What kinds of data, if any, are used to support each author's thesis statement?
  • Can the same data be interpreted to alternate ends?
  • Is the writing style clear and effective?
  • Do the books raise important or provocative issues or topics for discussion and further research?
  • What has been left out?

Support your evaluation with evidence from each text and, when possible, in relation to other sources. If relevant, make note of each book's format, such as, layout, binding, typography, etc. Are there maps, illustrations? Do they aid in understanding the research problem? This is particular important in books that contain a lot of non-textual elements, such as tables, charts, and illustrations.

NOTE:  It is important to carefully distinguish your views from those of the authors, so that you don’t confuse your reader.


V.  Examine the Front Matter and Back Matter

Front matter refers to anything before the first chapter of the book. Back matter refers to any information included after the final chapter of the book. Front matter is most often numbered separately from the rest of the text in lower case Roman numerals [i.e. i-xi]. Critical commentary about front or back matter is generally only necessary if you believe there is something that diminishes the overall quality of the work [e.g., the indexing is poor] or there is something that is particularly helpful in understanding the book's contents [e.g., foreword places the book in an important context].

The following front matter may be included in a book and may be considered for evaluation when reviewing its overall quality:

  • Table of contents -- is it clear? Is it detailed or general? Does it reflect the true contents of the book?
  • Author biography -- also found as back matter, the biography of author(s) can be useful in determining the authority of the writer and whether the book builds on prior research or represents new research. In scholarly reviews, noting the author's affiliation can be a factor in helping the reader determine the overall validity of the work [i.e., are they associated with a research center devoted to studying the research problem under investigation].
  • Foreword -- the purpose of a foreword is to introduce the reader to the author as well as the book itself, and to help establish credibility for both. A foreword may not contribute any additional information about the book's subject matter, but it serves as a means of validating the book's existence. Later editions of a book sometimes have a new foreword prepended [appearing before an older foreword, if there was one], which may be included to explain in how the latest edition differs from previous ones.
  • Acknowledgements -- scholarly studies in the social sciences often take many years to write, so authors frequently acknowledge the help and support of others in getting their research published. This can be as innocuous as acknowledging the author's family or the publisher. However, an author may acknowledge prominent scholars or subject experts, staff at key research centers, or people who curate important archival collections. In these particular cases, it may be worth noting these sources of support in your review.
  • Preface -- generally describes the genesis, purpose, limitations, and scope of the book and may include acknowledgments of indebtedness to people who have helped the author complete the study. Is the preface helpful in understanding the study? Does it provide an effective framework for understanding what's to follow?
  • Chronology -- also may be found as back matter, a chronology is generally included to highlight key events related to the subject of the book. Do the entries contribute to the overall work? Is it detailed or very general?
  • List of non-textual elements -- a book that contains a lot of charts, photographs, maps, etc. will often list these items after the table of contents in order that they appear in the text. Is it useful?

The following back matter may be included in a book and may be considered for evaluation when reviewing the overall quality of the book:

  • Afterword -- this is a short, reflective piece written by the author that takes the form of a concluding section, final commentary, or closing statement. It is worth mentioning in a review if it contributes information about the purpose of the book, gives a call to action, or asks the reader to consider key points made in the book.
  • Appendix -- is the supplementary material in the appendix or appendices well organized? Do they relate to the contents or appear superfluous? Does it contain any essential information that would have been more appropriately integrated into the text?
  • Index -- is the index thorough and accurate? Are elements used, such as, bold or italic fonts to help identify specific places in the book?
  • Glossary of Terms -- are the definitions clearly written? Is the glossary comprehensive or are key terms missing? Are any terms or concepts mentioned in the text not included?
  • Footnotes/Endnotes -- examine any footnotes or endnotes as you read from chapter to chapter. Do they provide important additional information? Do they clarify or extend points made in the body of the text?
  • Bibliography/References/Further Readings -- review any bibliography, list of references to sources, and/or further readings the author may have included. What kinds of sources appear [e.g., primary or secondary, recent or old, scholarly or popular, etc.]? How does the author make use of them? Be sure to note important omissions of sources that you believe should have been utilized.

NOTE:  Typically, multiple book review essays do not compare and contrast the quality of the back and front matter unless the books share a common deficiency [e.g., poor indexing] or the front or back matter is particularly important in supplementing the primary content of the books.


VI.  Summarize and Comment

Your conclusion should synthesize the key similarities and differences among the books and their collective contributions to understanding of the research problem. Avoid re-stating your assessment word for word; your goal is to provide a sense of closure and to leave the reader with a final perspective about the overall subject under review and whether you believe each book has effectively contributed to the overall research literature on the subject. Do not introduce new information in the conclusion. If you've compared the books to any other studies or used other sources in writing the review, be sure to cite them at the end of your book review essay.


Bazerman, Charles. Comparing and Synthesizing Sources. The Informed Writer: Using Sources in the Disciplines. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Comparing and Contrasting. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Comparison and Contrast Essays. Writing Support Centre. University of Western Ontario; Rhetorical Strategies: Comparison and Contrast. The Reading/Writing Center. Hunter College; Hartley, James. “Reading and Writing Book Reviews Across the Disciplines.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 57 (July 2006): 1194-1207; Hooker, Fran and Kate James. Apples to Oranges: Writing a Compare and Contrast Paper. The Writing Center. Webster University; Oinas, Päivi and Samuli Leppälä. “Views on Book Reviews.” Regional Studies 47 (2013): 1785-1789; Visvis, Vikki and Jerry Plotnick. The Comparative Essay. The Lab Report. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Writing a Compare/Contrast Essay. CLRC Writing Center. Santa Barbara City College.

Categories: 1

0 Replies to “Elements Of Essays Patterns Purpose And Perspectives Lexington”

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *