Biodiversity and Climate Change
In a nutshell
We cannot address biodiversity loss without tackling climate change, but it is equally impossible to tackle climate change without addressing biodiversity loss. Protecting and restoring ecosystems can help us reduce the extent of climate change and cope with its impact.
Climate change could undermine our efforts for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. We need to help biodiversity adapt to changing temperature and water regimes and we have to prevent, minimise and offset any potential damages to biodiversity arising from climate change adaptation and mitigation measures.
The Commission White Paper on Adapting to Climate Change – Towards a European Framework for Action (April 2009) and the EU Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change both recognised the importance of ecosystems in tackling climate change. The White Paper encouraged the development of "measures which address biodiversity loss and climate change in an integrated manner to fully exploit co-benefits and avoid ecosystem feedbacks that accelerate global warming".
Protecting biodiversity can help us adapt to climate change. Healthy ecosystems will be more resilient to climate change and so more able to maintain the supply of ecosystem services on which our prosperity and wellbeing depend. Ecosystems-based approaches should be an integral part of the overall adaptation and mitigation effort. We can, for instance, ensure the effective management and restoration of Natura 2000 areas, working with- rather than against – nature.
The impacts of climate change on man are largely mediated by natural systems. Climate change will significantly affect economies and societies through its impacts on ecosystems.
Healthy ecosystems must lie at the centre of any adaptation policy and can help mitigate climate change impacts, by absorbing excess flood water or buffering us against coastal erosion or extreme weather events. Forests, peatlands and other habitats are major stores of carbon. Protecting them can also help us limit atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.
Consequently 'conventional' pressures that cause the fragmentation, degradation, over-exploitation and pollution of ecosystems must be reduced ('ecosystem climate-proofing'). This is why we have a strategy to reconnect natural areas using green infrastructure to restore the health of ecosystems and allow species to thrive across their entire natural habitat. The underlying principle of green infrastructure is that the same area of land can frequently offer multiple benefits if its ecosystems are healthy.
Biodiversity climate change adaptation tools, such as flyways, buffer zones, corridors and stepping stones, enhance the coherence and interconnectivity in Europe.
Climate change and Natura 2000
An effectively managed, functionally coherent and well-connected Natura 2000 Network can play a vital role in helping society adapt to, and mitigate, the impacts of climate change.
A guidance document presents the latest scientific information on the risks posed by climate change to species and habitat types of EU conservation concern. It also provides advice, supported by good practice examples, on how to deal with the impact of climate change when managing Natura 2000 sites. It is primarily addressed to site managers and policy makers.
A supplement has been developed to assess the vulnerability of Natura 2000 species and habitats. This supplement is based on best available knowledge. Caution is advised in the use and interpretation of the results: for many species, no or little information is available on the impacts of climate change; for habitats, most of the assessment is based on expert knowledge.
- Guidelines supplement: assessment of the vulnerability of species and habitats of Community Interest to climate change
For more information
Discover how water management can help us adapt to climate change.
Find out more about the EU action on adaptation to climate change.
Read our factsheet on nature's role in climate change (August 2009).
Discover the Rio Conventions' Ecosystems and Climate Change Pavilion, a platform to raise awareness and share information about the latest practices and scientific findings on the synergies that can be realized through implementation of the three Rio Conventions. (Factsheet)
Impacts of climate change and selected renewable energy infrastructures on EU Biodiversity and the Natura 2000 network (Summary report)
Assessing the potential of ecosystem-based approaches to climate change adaptation and mitigation in Europe (Final report)
"Towards a Strategy on Climate Change, Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity (Discussion paper)
Home » Arctic Climate Change » Level 2 » Question 10
Arctic Climate Change
- 10.1 Change Presents Risks and Opportunities
- 10.2 Potential Surprises
- 10.3 The Bottom Line
Climate change presents a major and growing challenge to the Arctic and the world as a whole. While the concerns this generates are important now, their implications are even greater for future generations that will bear the consequences of current actions or inaction. Strong rapid action to reduce emissions is required in order to alter the future path of human-induced warming. Action is also needed to begin to adapt to the warming that is already occurring and that will continue. The findings of this first Arctic Climate Impact Assessment provide a scientific basis upon which decision makers can consider, craft, and implement appropriate actions to respond to this important and far-reaching challenge. More...
10.1 Change Presents Risks and Opportunities
The ACIA report shows that climate change is very likely to result in major environmental changes, entailing risks as well as opportunities for the Arctic. For example, while the large reduction in summer sea ice threatens the future of several ice-dependent species, including polar bears and seals, and the peoples that depend upon them, it may also enable the expansion of Arctic shipping routes. More...
10.2 Potential Surprises
Some very likely climate-related changes in the Arctic environment are expected to have major impacts such as decline in sea ice, increase in coastal erosion, and thawing of permafrost. In addition, other changes that are much less likely could have very large impacts and lead to so-called “surprises”. Due to the complexity of the Earth’s climatic system, it is possible that climate change will evolve differently than the gradually changing scenarios used in this assessment. For example, storm intensities and tracks could change in unforeseen ways or temperatures could rise or fall abruptly due to unexpected disturbances of global weather systems. Possible changes in the global thermohaline circulation could also have wide-reaching consequences. Although such changes could cause major impacts, very little information is currently available for considering such possibilities. More...
10.3 The Bottom Line
Despite the fact that a relatively small percentage of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions originate in the Arctic, human-induced changes in Arctic climate are among the largest on Earth. As a consequence, the changes already underway in Arctic landscapes, communities, and unique features provide an early indication for the rest of the world of the environmental and societal significance of global climate change. As this report illustrates, changes in climate and their impacts in the Arctic are already being widely noticed and felt, and they are projected to become much greater. These changes will also reach far beyond the Arctic, affecting global climate, sea level, biodiversity, and many aspects of human social and economic systems. Climate change in the Arctic thus deserves and requires urgent attention by decision makers and the public worldwide. More...